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Friday, February 5, 2010



The definition of giftedness is based on cognition, reasoning, and the score a person receives on a test of intelligence to a multidimensional view of intelligence, aptitudes, abilities and talent development. Marlands, 1972, defined gifted and talented children are those identified by professionally qualified persons who by virtue of outstanding abilities are capable of high performance. These children may have the potential ability in any of the following areas such as –general intellectual aptitude, -specific academic aptitude, -creative or productive thinking, -leadership ability, and –visual and performing arts.
It is also believed that giftedness is multidimentional in the areas of: -high academic aptitude or intelligence –above-average intelligence –high creativity, and – substantial task commitment.
Gardner (1983) had given seven dimensions of intelligence and persons with gifted and talented may have any one or more of the following intellectual capacities:

Gardner’s Seven Intelligence
Verbal-linguistic:- the ability to use language in a number of ways. The components of ability are syntax, semantics, pragmatics, written and oral language when an adult age of the individual may be novelist, lecturer, lawyer, lyricist.
Logical-mathematics:- the ability to reason and recognize patters. The components of the ability are deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning and computation. The adult role will be a mathematician or a physicist.
Visual-spatial:- the ability to see the world and re-create it. The component is ability to represent and manipulate spatial configurations, interrelationship or parts. The adult role may be architect, engineer, mechanic, navigator, or chess player.
Body-kinesthetic:- the ability to use the body and hand skillfully. It is ability to use all or part of one’s body Dancer, athlete, mimeor surgeon.
Musical-rhythmic:- the ability to perceive the world through its rhythm. Pitch discrimination, ability to hear themes in music, sensitivity to rhythm, texture, and timbre and production of music through performance or composition. When an adult they may be musician, a composer or a singer.
Interpersonal:- the ability to notice and respond to other people’s needs ability to understand and act productively on others’ actions and motivations. They may be a teacher, a therapist, a politician, or a salesperson as an adult.
Intrapersonal:- the ability to understand one’s own feelings. Understanding of self.

Causes: Factors that enhance or Inhibit Giftedness
Environmental and heredity, cultural values and expectations, socioeconomic level, birth position (eg. First born), and number of children in the family.
Environmental factors such as children not challenged in school do not develop their potential, boredom, war, prenatal malnutrition, isolation, neglect, abuse, insufficient infant stimulation, and poor medical treatment can adversely affect diminish of giftedness.

Identification and Assessment:
Standardized tests to level the IQ
Students products or work samples
Creativity, Artistic ability, Leadership skills

Educational Intervention

Learning modes of Gifted Learners

Selective strengths ad learning models:
-Verbal fluency, stylistic, charismatic use of language
-Expressive movement, advanced kinesthetic ability
-Advanced aesthetic sensibilities advanced creative abilities
-Utilize problem-based learning
-Preference for person-to-person interactions
-Sensitivity for the interconnectedness of humankind with nature

Responsive Teaching-Learning Methodologies:
-Emphasize creative writing, poetry, public speaking, oral discussion, debating, drama, and literature.
-Emphasize hands-on learning strategies and allow flexible classroom organization.
-Integration f arts with core instruction.
-Opportunities for experimentation with ideas, and seeking solutions to real problems.
-Emphasize development of social interaction and leadership skills, attention to world affairs, and current issues.
-Focus on science, ecology, outdoor field experience, anthropology, and social sciences.



Physical disabilities are divided into two subcategories – Physically impaired and health impaired (Taylor and Sternberg, 1989). Physical disability is a condition affecting the CNS or loss of limbs or other body system. Health impairment is a disease or illness that affect the various organs of the body.
Physical (motor) impairment is generally categorized into two major components: 1. Orthopedic 2. Health related impairments
1. Orthopedic Impairment:- It is a condition related to a physical deformity or disability of the selected system and associated function. This is classified into different forms:
Cerebral Palsy:- A group of neuromuscular disorder that results from damage to CNS. It is characterized by paralysis, weakness and poor co-ordination. It may categorize into specific physical disability groups such as Spasticity, athetoid, ataxic, hypotonic, rigidity and tremor.
Spasticity:- it have tense, contracted muscles and movements are jerky and poorly coordinated, and unable to grasp objects with fingers.
Spastic cerebral palsy is further classified by topographical distributions: --Quadriplegia --Deplegia --Hemiplegia
Quadriplegia:- means that all four limbs (both arms and legs) are affected, movements of the trunk and face may also be impaired.
Deplegia:- refers to a major involvement of the legs, with less severe involvement of the arms
Hemiplegia:- is an impairments of one side of the body.
Athetoid (Extrapyramidal):- characterized by uncontrolled tightening or pulling of muscles. (this will make large, irregular, twisting movements that cannot control)
Ataxic:- it is characterized by movements disrupted by impaired balance-depth perception. (this will make poor sense balance and body position, dizzy while walking and may fall easily if not supported)
Hypotonic:- it has normal movements patterns but lack the tone to initiate or maintain a change in posture.(this will dominated by gravity)
Rigidity:- it has extreme stiffness in the affected limbs; may be fixed and immobile for long periods.
Tremor:- it is marked by rhythmic, uncontrollable movements.

2. Health related impairment
Heart conditions, Asthma, Diabetes, Accident based impairments, Traumatic Brain injury, Spinal cord injuries and burns

Causes of Physical Impairments
-Chromosomal abnormalities –environmental hazards –congenital physical malformation (present at birth) large/small, inside/ outside body –Accidents and viral bacterial diseases.
Identification, assessment and intervention

Identification: Teachers or parents can use the following points to identify children with motor impairments:
 has poor motor control or coordination
 walks with a limp or with awkwardness
 shows signs of pain during exercise
 has jerky or shaky motions
 has defects which interfere with normal function of the bones, muscles or joints
The teacher can engage the children with mild physical activities to identify the disorder such as: One-legged race and Backwards race.

Symptoms for children with health problems:
They are: - easily fatigued, abnormal in size so cannot participate in the group, excessively restless and overactive, usually breathless after exercise and subject to frequent dry cough, complains of chest pains, inattentive, excessively hungry and thirsty, complaining of pains in arms, legs or joints; and faint easily.

Assessments have to do with child’s speech, gesture, touch, movements or any combination of these in direct or code form. The following are some of standardized tests given for children with physical handicaps.
 Pre-test of vision, hearing and motor coordination (Grades KG –12)
Oseretsky Test for motor proficiency
 Hands on therapy:- physical, occupational, and other specialists provide direct hands on treatment
 Assistive device:- braces and splints (Usually made molded plastic) are used to give a child movement with stability to correct abnormal postures, and to control involuntary motions. Special inserts or wedges can help children sit or stand in positions that are comfortable and suitable for instructional tasks.
 Medication:- medicines can help reduce spasticity and rigidity but generally are of only limited usefulness in improving the muscle tone of children with physical disabilities.
 Surgery:- Orthopedic or neurologic surgery also helps, although this often regarded as a last resort in the treatment of physical impairments.