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Saturday, January 10, 2015

National Workshop: Structural Equations Modeling using R

Centre for Experimental and Computational Social Sciences (UGC-UPE)
University of Mumbai

Two-day National Workshop
“Structural Equations Modeling using R”
31 January -1 February 2015

The Centre for Experimental and Computational Social Sciences (UGC-UPE) is happy to announce Two-day National Workshop on “Structural Equations Modeling using R” for psychology and behavioral sciences researchers.
The use of Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) is increasing in social sciences, particularly in psychology, sociology and economics. The other areas like research in management, education, political science has also started employing structural equations modeling extensively. Most of the users end up modeling using SPSS-AMOS and Lisrel. Both the statistical packages are proprietary. The R software for statistical computing provides an open-source platform which users can download and use freely. Quite a few packages are available in R for doing Structural Equations Modeling. The workshop aims at introducing to SEM, its theory and various aspects of SEM. It also will deal with suitable R code for the SEM. We have received overwhelming response for the previous workshop on SEM and could not accommodate all applicants and hence we are running this one. The workshop will be conducted by Vivek Belhekar.

Workshop Content:

The workshop has following aspects:
·            Introduction to SEM
·            Conceptualizing latent variables
·            Basic Mathematics and Statistics required for SEM: Matrix algebra and Calculus. Estimation (OLS and Maximum likelihood estimations, and related aspects)
·            Introduction to regression model
·            Exploratory Factor Analysis
·            Limitations of EFA
·            Confirmatory Factor Analysis in SEM: Measurement Model
o   Model Building and Model Specifications
o   Model identifications
o   Model Evaluation: Estimation and Statistical hypothesis testing
o   Evaluating model using Fit-indices
·            Full Structural Equations Model
o   Model Building and Model Specifications
o   Model identifications
o   Model Evaluation: Estimation and Statistical hypothesis testing
o   Evaluating model using Fit-indices
·            Recent Advances in SEM

Duration: The workshop is for two days. The time of the workshop is from 10.00 am to 5.00 pm.

Eligibility: The workshop is conducted for Research Scholars, Teachers and Students in Behavioral and Social Sciences. Participants should have some background in statistical applications for social and behavioral sciences.

Intake Capacity: 25 participants.

Registration: There is not registration fee for the participants.

Requirement for Participants: Participants should carry a laptop with them. The OS can be Windows/Mac/Linux. They are also requested to install R on the laptops. We shall provide R installable if participants do not have one. If the participants do not have laptops, then we shall provide 2-3 laptops to the participants. The data for hands-on experience of SEM analysis shall be provided to the participants, which they are expected to analyze data to test for model fit.

Accommodation: We shall not provide any accommodation. However, we may help outstation participants to find one.

About The Centre For Experimental and Computational Social Sciences: The Centre For Experimental and Computational Social Sciences is one of the interdisciplinary center established under University with Potential for Excellence grant by UGC to the University of Mumbai. The center is carrying out experimental work in the areas of Experimental game theory, Experimental economics, Behavioral economics, Evolutionary Psychology, etc. The center has its own mobile experimental laboratory and carry out experiments in and out of laboratory. The center promotes use of modern computational tools and also promotes open-source platforms for experimental and statistical work in social sciences. Various workshops for training are carried out to achieve this purpose.

Apply Now:
Apply by filling this form online.

Contact Details:
Vivek Belhekar: email:        mobile: 9768134121
Parinaz Mehta:                      mobile:
Madhava Galgali: email:  mobile:

Vivek Belhekar                                                                    Neeraj Hatekar
Member                                                                                 Center Coordinator    

Vivek Mohan Belhekar,
Assistant Professor
Department of Applied Psychology
University of Mumbai
Vidyanagari, Santacruz (E)
Mumbai: 400 098

Professor / Associate Professor - Psychology Programmes

Current Openings

Amity is the leading education group of India with over 100000 students studying across 1000 acres of hi-tech campus. At Amity we are passionate about grooming leaders who are not only thorough professionals but also good human beings with values and sanskars. This is just one of the many reasons as to, why we are consistently ranked no.1.

Government Recognized
The Amity University has been established by an act of State Legislature and recognized by University Grants Commission (UGC) through the Act of State Legislature.

Reputed Faculty
4,000 strong faculty led by 11 former Vice Chancellors, former Chairman of UGC and Vice Chairman of AICTE.

Designation     Professor / Associate Professor - Psychology Programmes - 5 Opening(s)

Job Description           The primary responsibility is to teach Psychology programmes to UG, PG, M.Phil & Ph.D in Amity Institute of Psychology & Behavioural Sciences & Amity Institute of Behavioural Health & Allied Sciences

The incumbent should be responsible for the day-to-day review & evaluate students' activities & progress.

Participate in Departmental & Institutional activities.

Develop & implement innovative instructional method.

Desired Profile           
The candidate should be graduate & post graduate in Psychology.
Ph.D. in Psychology is mandatory.
Should be first class through out his academic qualifications.
Should have good experience in teaching in an institution / University of repute.
Should  have good publications in peer reviewed journals.
Should have some administrative experience as well.

Experience      10 - 20 Years
Industry Type Education / Teaching / Training

Role     Lecturer/Professor

Functional Area          Teaching, Education, Training, Counselling

UG - B.A - Psychology

PG - M.A - Psychology

Doctorate - M.Phil., Ph.D - Psychology

Compensation:            Negotiable

Location          Noida

Keywords       Ph.D in Psychology

Contact           Ms.Chhaya Chandraker
Amity University
Telephone        01204392744


Psychologist with specialization in developmental psychology and/ clinical psychology required urgently for a clinic in Domlur, Bangalore. preferebly Mphil. 

Friday, January 9, 2015

Mental Health: Concepts, Characteristics; Adjustment Meaning and Concepts, process of adjustment; Frustrations; Behavioural Problems – Meaning and Concepts

Mental Health
Mental health is a dynamic process in which a person’s physical, cognitive, affective, behavioral, and social dimensions interact functionally with one another and the environment.
Mental health: a state of well-being
Mental health is defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.
The positive dimension of mental health is stressed in WHO's definition of health as contained in its constitution: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
This fact file highlights the important aspects of mental health and disorders.
Mental health stands for the “the wholesomeness of the mind” and it concerned with the health of one’s mind and its functioning as well as physical functioning.
J.A. Hadfield (1952): Mental health is the full and harmonious functioning of the whole personality.
Cutts and Moslay (1941). Mental health is the ability which helps us to seek adjustment in the difficult situations of our life.
K. A. Menninger (1949). Let us define mental health as the adjustment of human beings to the world and each other with a maximum of effectiveness and happiness. It is the ability to maintain even temper, an alert intelligence, socially considerate behavior and a happy disposition.
We can conclude, the mental health as the health of one’s mind which can prove a potent determinant of one’s integrated personality and balanced behavior identified on the basis of the level of his adjustment to his self, others and environment.
Understanding the Concept of Mental Health
There are certain well-known characteristics and findings for understanding the true concept of mental health. They have been mentioned briefly as follows:
1.      Nothing called perfect mental health: Mental health is a fiction and not reality. Hence, it is always better to talk of optimum mental health in place of perfect mental health.
2.      Mental health is dynamic concept: Mental health denotes a state of balanced equilibrium of our mind. This balance is not static, it is quite dynamic. The circumstances in our life are never static and since they are changeable, so is our adjustment. The adjustments we have achieved at any point with ourself and the enviourmental forces may not be helpful in future and so one’s mental heal is always in a state of dynamics.
3.      Mental health can’t be achieved without physical health. The saying that ‘ a sound mind lives in a sound body’ is quite true. For achieving an optimal level of mental health, one has to first acquire adequate physical health.
4.      Mental health and efficiency are not the same thing. It is not essential for the successful and efficient men to be mentally healthy as well. One may be quite efficient and successful at his work or profession but he could be most unhappy, full of anxiety, etc. otherwise.
5.      Mental health and Social ability are not the same things. While a mentally healthy person is sociable, it is not necessary for a sociable or socially adaptable person to be healthy minded. One may be sociable but extremely anxious to please everybody. Similarly he may be amenable because of an inherent feeling of insecurity or inferiority.
6.      Mental health differs form ethical standards: Mental health differs from ethical standards. Morality does not guarantee mental health. There exist many individuals who are very moral but suffer from serious abnormalities like phobias or sex perversions.

Common Characteristics of a Mentally Healthy Person
The common characteristics of psychologically healthy individual as proposed by several psychologists are listed below:
1. Adaptable and resilient mind
2. Conscious control of life
3. Cheerful and optimistic outlook
4. Well-regulated instincts and habits
5. Emotional balance
6. Insight into one's own conduct
7. Enthusiastic and reasonable
8. Normal sex-consciousness
9. Freedom from prejudice
10. Calm
11. Good tempered
12. Socially adaptable
13. Definite philosophy of life
14. Capacity to think independently
15. Satisfied with the work or occupation
16. Realistic imagination.

Adjustment Meaning and Concepts:
“Life presents a continuous chain of struggle for existence and survivals”, says Darwin. Adjustment is a necessary characteristic to be able to live peacefully in this world. Adjustment problem starts right from the birth of and continues till death, various situations arise at home. School, college, and workplace where we need to give up a little of our demands and accept what is present. Adjustment is the process of arriving at a balanced state between the need of individual and their satisfaction. Home and school play pivotal role in the adjustment of an individual.
According to the Darwin (1958) theory of evolution, those species which adapted successfully to the demands of living, survived and multiplied while others who did not, died out. Therefore adaptation or change in oneself according to the external environment is a basic need for survival. However the concept of adjustment is not as simple as adaptation. Psychologist and scholars differ considerably in interpreting its meaning and nature.
James Drever defines adjustment as the modification to compensate for or meat special condition.
According to the Shaffer, L.S. (1961) “Adjustment is the process by which living organism maintain a balance between his needs and the circumstances that influence the satisfactions of these needs. In the words of Coleman, James C., “Adjustment is the outcome of the individual’s attempts to deal with the stress and meet his needs: also his efforts to maintain harmonious relationships with the environment.
And according to the Carter V Good , “adjustment is the process of finding and adopting modes of behavior suitable to the environment or the change in the environment.
“Adjustment” can be defined as a process of altering one's behavior to reach a harmonious relationship with their environment. This is typically a response brought about by some type of change that has taken place. The stress of this change causes one to try to reach a new type of balance or homeostasis between the individual (both inwardly and outwardly), and with their environment.
The above discussion can lead us to summarize in the following way:
·         Adjustment is a process that takes us to lead a happy and well-contented life.
·         Adjustment helps us in keeping balanced between our needs and the capacity to meet these needs.
·         Adjustment persuades us to change our way of life according to the demands of the situation.
·         Adjustment gives us strength and ability to bring desirable changes in the conditions of our environment.

Areas of adjustment:
Adjustment in the case of individual consisted of personal as well as environmental components. These two aspects of adjustment can be further subdivided into smaller aspects of personal and environmental factors.
Broadly speaking there are three areas where an individual need to be adjusted to live a balance life. These are: Family and home, School, and Society.
The major areas of adjustment are:
Emotional Adjustment: Emotions play a leading role in one's adjustment to self and his environment. An individual is said to be emotionally adjusted if he is able to express his emotions in a proper way at a proper time. It requires one's balanced emotional development and proper training in the outlet of emotions.
Health Adjustment: One should be adjusted with health and physical aspects soundly, if an individual's physical development and abilities are in conformity with those of his peers and he does not feel any difficulty in his progress due to some defects or incapabilities in his physical organs, he enjoys full opportunity of being adjusted.
Family Adjustment: He all knows that home is a source of greatest satisfaction and security to its members. The relationships among family members and their ways of behaviour play a leading role in adjustment of an individual. All problematic and delinquent behaviour is the result of the adjustment and maladjustment, to a great extent as it is the product of faulty rearing an uncongenial atmosphere at home.
Social Adjustment: An individual's social adjustment can be ascertained by his social environment. Social adjustment requires the development of psychic qualities and virtues in an individual. It also requires that one should be social enough to live in harmony with that social being and feel responsible and obligatory towards one's fellow people, society and country.
Academic adjustment involves the students' healthy adjustment to school or college environment and work. It could be looked upon as the student's adjustment to the curriculum as evidenced in his interest and liking for it, steadiness and clarity of his goals, that is, whether the student has a carefully conceived plan for his future; whether he is conscious of clear and normal life-goals; whether he is stimulated to a proper effort to achieve them. The achievement of these largely depends upon his efficiency in the use of his time and methods of study he employs. His emotional maturity, his sound mental and physical health, his personal and social relationships with the teachers and his associates are factors that are likely to help or hinder the efficient pursuit of his goals in the sphere of collegiate life.
Academic adjustment may broadly be described in terms of the characteristics exhibited by a well adjusted student. A well adjusted student possesses or exhibits the following characteristics:
1. He has a high degree of intrinsic interest in the subjects he is studying.
2. He has a positive attitude towards the requirements of his courses.
3. He has a realistic evaluation of his abilities and capacities.
4. He has the ability to concentrate for a reasonable length of time in the performance of his academic work.
5. He exhibits stability in his goals and in his emotional life.
6. He is able to enjoy life in many areas.
Academic adjustment is the satisfactory relationship of the student to the academic situation. It may be defined as adaptation to the demands of the total scholastic environment. The adjustment process consists in the efforts of the student to overcome frustrations in achieving the satisfaction of his needs. In this sense, the exact nature of adjustment will be unique in each individual student in terms of his personality and his self-elected goals.
The process of adjustment can best be described in terms of a number of criteria:
(i) Integration: A well adjusted student is free from inner conflicts and therefore is able to concentrate his energies on his goal or compatible group of goals.
(ii) Ego development: A well adjusted student is one who has learned to apply his intelligence to the effective solution of his problems to living. He is able to work efficiently and adequately. He finds reasonable enthusiasm, satisfaction and pleasure in his work. He develops a sound and consistent philosophy of life which involves a broad and realistic outlook of the world around him. He is able to plan for the successful accomplishment of his goals.
(iii) Reality orientation: A well adjusted student recognizes reality, particularly his own limitations and capacities. He learns frustration tolerance' and to inhibit his needs when they are not suitable and postpones satisfaction for a more favourable occasion.
(iv) Responsibility : A well adjusted student has the necessary maturity to accept responsibility for his actions. He has the necessary mastery and understanding of his own feelings. He has a certain freedom of emotional expression and self-control.
(v) Sense of security: A well adjusted student has a sound sense of security which grows out of his feelings of belonging and being desired. He has adjusted his aspirations to reality, that is, the reality of what he can expect of himself in the light of his talents, social position; and opportunities. He is free from excessive anxiety, depression, worry and disturbing fears. His feelings betray neither excessive exuberance nor despondency.
(vi) Curiosity and Spontaneity: A well adjusted students shows normal curiosity and exhibits a natural and easy spontaneity in social relationships. His emotions are under his control and he does not permit their exaggerated expression. He learns to put his energies to constructive and socially desirable ends. He perceives the world about him as a warm, friendly place inhabited by people largely benevolent and friendly. He is optimistic.

Man is ambitions by nature. He has so many aspirations and desires to be fulfilled. He plans and strives hard for their realization but it is possible that despite his best planning and efforts, he may not get the desired success. At times he may find himself in the state of utter confusion and bewilderment. All the paths for going ahead seem to be blocked. Such state of affairs, along with the repeated failure in the attempts, puts one into a state or condition that can be termed as frustration. For making the term more clear, let us take some definitions coined by eminent writers.
Carroll (1962): a frustration is the condition of being thwarted in the satisfaction of motive.
Good (1959): Frustration means emotional tension resulting from the blocking of a desire or need.
Kolesnic : Frustration is the feeling of being blocked or thwarted in satisfying a need of attaining a goal that individual perceives as significant.
Barney and Lehner (1953): Frustration refers to failure to satisfy a basic need because of either conditions in the individual or external obstacles.
These definitions reveal the following facts about the nature and meaning of the term frustration:
Frustration is that stage or condition in which failure dominates the attempts.
In this state one feels a major obstacle in the satisfaction of one’s basic needs or in the attainment of one’s cherished goal.
The significance of the goal and strength of the “blockade” increases the degree of frustration.
The cause of frustration lies both in the individual himself and his environment.

Causes of Frustrations
The cause of frustration may be devided into two major heads:
A External factors
B  Internal Factors

Please refer Essentials of Educational Psychology by S.K. Mangal – pages 534 to 540 for remaining notes.

Behavioural Problems – Meaning and Concepts
All our behavior has some definite purpose, aim or motive and it directed towards the satisfaction of our basic needs, desires, ambitions, instincts and emotions. The way in which this give and take relationship is maintained decides the course of our adjustment with the society. Satisfactory adjustment gives satisfaction to us and the society. Consequently our actions and behavior are adjudged proper and get rewarded or praised. Contrarily when our equilibration, the balance between our self and the social environment, is disturbed, we being to suffer from social maladjustment. Then it becomes difficult to maintain harmony in our relationship with the society. We are forced to drift away from the norms, rules and regulations and expectations of the society and there begins a war like situation between our ‘self’ and the social environment. We are confronted with the feelings of insecurity, anxiety, frustration and other similar emotions resulting in various abnormalities in our behavior. As a consequence, our behaivour no longer remains a social behavior but becomes anti-social or abnormal leading to many behavior problems to our self and the society.
Due to this, they fall easy victims to many behavioural problems like: bed wetting, nail biting, autism (inability to relate socially), Thumb sucking, Temper tantrums, Lying, Truancy, Stealing, pick pocketing and other types of juvenile delinquency, Bullying or fighting, Hair plucking, different phobias, Speech disorders like stammering, Extreme fearfulness and anxiety, Copying, Negativism, Sexually deviant behavior and Drug addiction etc.
In this way, a behavior, provided it related to the point of causing problems to the individual himself as well as to the members and resources of the society. However, such problems child or adult has abnormality only in terms of the problems related with behavior, otherwise he is as normal as others. In this way behavioural problems should never be confused with the individuals suffering from developmental disorders and mental illness.
On the basis of behavioural problem meaning and nature, we can define it as:
The term behavioural problem or problematic behavior stands for that type of serious abnormality in the behavior of an individual (child or adult) which, while causing a problem for his proper adjusted to self and the environment, proves quite detrimental to his own welfare along with that of the society.

Some common types of behavioural problems of the children and adolescents are:
Truancy, Lying, Stealing, Temper Tantrums, & Drug Addiction
Truancy: is a behavioural problem is related with the school life of a child. Those children who willingly make themselves absent from the classroom or outside classroom or outside classroom activities of the school without the prior permission of their parents, teachers or school authorities are termed as truants and their such absenteeism related behavior is termed as truancy.
Causes of Truancy
Truancy, in all its kinds and shapes, is a behavioural problem and is thus the outcome of one’s maladjustment and maladaptation with his self and the environment. The causes of his maladaptive behavior resulting into truancy, thus lie well within the factors and circumstances related to one’s physical, social and educational surroundings are given below:
Physical health of the child, Mental health of the child, Level of physical and mental abilities, Behaviour of the teachers, Study and teaching methods in schools, Lack of cocurricular activities and hobbies, Indiscipline in schools, Ill effects of bad company, Home environment, Difficulty in the satisfaction of basic needs, Desire to escape from work, Social and emotional maladjustment, Desire to prove superiority and courage etc.
Lying and speaking the truth represent the two opposite and contradictory dimensions of one’s personality. While truth is associated with the virtues like honestly, integrity, and transparency in one’s behavior, lying is said to be in close relationship with the vices like dishonestly, fraud, deceit and indecency. So while speaking of truth is always appreciated and encouraged in our society, the telling of lie is considered bad, undignified and immoral. In our books and literature, we are always told and preached that we should not tell lies. However, despite such widespread opposition to lying, we all, including small children, tell lies. The question arises as to what makes such innocent children pick up the evil habit of lying in its many ways and styles. Let us study this problem in detail.
Types of Lies
Lies can be classified mainly into two following broad types and styles.
A: The lies that are told knowingly in the state of full consciousness with some definite purposes. (eg. Told on account of fear or for saving the self from punishment or some other personal losses, safety of others, making fool of others, proving one as a super hero, winning a game or competition etc.)
B: The lies that are told unknowingly in the absence of essential consciousness are included in this category. These are mainly generated through one’s unconscious mind. (eg. Lies related to an incomplete, improper or wrong reporting of the facts on account of inadequate remembrance of the things or events, for expression of one’s unconscious motives and desires, one’s world of imagination, children’s ignorance or innocence)
Stealing refers to that behaviour of an individual or child in which he (i) engages himself in picking up or taking away some thing (money or material object) belonging to others without their consent or knowledge; (ii) pleads or exhibits his ignorance about the whereabouts of the object and (iii) keep an unauthorized possession of the picked up object with him or derives benefits by selling or giving it to somebody else of his choice.
Temper Tantrum
Temper tantrum or temper outburst is a common sight for any professional who deals with the problems of the children. It occurs more frequently among younger children who exhibit a variety of learning, physical or emotional problems. As a matter of definition, temper tantrum may be termed as an intense uncontrollable outburst of anger expressed though cursing, kicking, hitting, biting, screaming, rolling on the ground, destruction of property and related behavior that may be dangerous to those around as well as to furnishings.
Drug Addiction
The Drug Addiction carries with it the concept of drug and addiction.
Drugs: We generally make use of one or the other drugs for preserving our health and protecting as well as curing ourselves from illness or diseases. In this sense, drugs are our best friends. However, this is one side of the story. All drugs are not always so helpful to us. If taken in excess or in contradiction to the need of the body, they may prove fatal. It is truer with those drugs that are associated with intoxication. Here while trying to know the meaning of the term drug addiction; we must be quite specific that by work drug we clearly mean the drugs associated with intoxication.
Addiction: Physiological and psychological dependence on something may be referred to as our addiction to that thing. In this sense we may have addiction to our breakfast, lunch, or dinner. However, its excessive and prolonged use can make him quite dependent on it both physiologically and psychologically. Gradually, it becomes dependent on it thus resulting in such craving that one is compelled to take it at any cost irrespective of the consequences. Hence starting from a causal intake and ordinary habit, drug addiction may take the shape of quire a dangerous personality disorder. In its developing stages this disorder may be seen to gradually affect the individual in the following ways.
Initial effects of drugs, conversion into a habit, Tolerance for the heavy doses of the drugs, Physiological and Psychological dependence, Presence of withdrawal symptoms, and developing into a behavioural problems.
After understating the meaning of the terms drug and addiction, we may now define the term ‘drug addiction’, in the following way:

The behavioural problem associated with the drug addiction stands for that physiological and psychological state of an individual which is resulted through the prolonged and excessive use of an intoxicating drug and which may be characterized by (a) an intense craving or compulsion to obtain or consume it regardless of consequences; (b) a tendency to increase the dosage with time; (c) physiological and psychological dependence on the effects of the drug; (d) manifestation of particular withdrawal symptoms on abrupt discontinuation of the drug, and (e) to live and work only for consuming the drug.


Learning can be defined as a process bringing relatively enduring changes in the behaviour of the learner through experience and learning.
This definition may also reveal that learning process related with a particular teaching-learning situation is mainly centered with two things, namely-
(i) the learner whose behaviour is to be modified
(ii) the type of experience and training available for the modification in the learner's behaviour.
Therefore, the success or failure in the task of learning in a particular teaching-learning situation or environment mainly involves two types of factors, one related with the learner and other with the prevailing learning environment. Therefore, the differences observed in the results of learning or performances exhibited by a group of learners may be surely attributed to the differences present in the learner's themselves or within their learning environment. Consequently the factors influencing learning may be broadly classified as personal (learner related) and environmental (learning facilities and situations) related. The environmental related factors, then can be further categorized as teacher related, content related and process related (sources available to the learners for their learning). As a result the factors influencing learning may be categorized as below :
A. Learner Related Factors
B. Teacher Related Factors
C. Content Related Factors
D. Process Related Factors
Let us discuss now these four types of factors one by one-

Learner Related Factors
The learner is the key Figure in any learning task. He has to learn to bring desired modification in his behaviour. How will he learn or what will he achieve through a particular learning act depends heavily on his own characteristics and way of learning. Such things or factors associated with him can be described as below—
1. Learner's physical and mental health: learning is greatly affected by the learner's physical and mental health maintained by him particularly at the time of learning. A simple headache or stomach ache can play a havoc with the process and products of learning. Children who did not keep up with satisfactory physical health have to suffer adversely in terms of the gain in learning. Similarly, the mental state and health of the learner at the lime of learning become potent factor in deciding the outcome of the learning. A tense, emotionally and mentally disturbed learner cannot be expected to show satisfactory results in learning.
2. Basic potential of the learner: The results achieved by the learner through a process of learning depend heavily upon his basic potential to undergo such learning. Such potential may consist of the following things.
• Learner's innate abilities and capacities for learning a thing.
• Learner's basic potential in terms of general intelligence and specific knowledge, understanding and skills related to particular learning area.
• Learner's basic interests, aptitudes and attitudes related to the learning of a particular thing or area.
3. Level of aspiration and achievement motivation: Learning is greatly influenced by the level of aspiration and nature of achievement motivation possessed by the learner. How can we expect from a learner to achieve a thing for which he has no aspiration? One has to maintain the level of his aspiration and achievement motivation to a reasonable level neither too high causing frustration for non-achievement nor too low so as not to try for things for which he is quite capable. In this way, one's level of aspiration and achievement motivation works significantly towards gains in learning.
4.   Goals of life: The philosophy and immediate as well as ultimate goals of one's life affect the process and products of learning. His mode and ways of looking towards the things, his inclination towards the learning in a particular area and patience and persistence maintained for continuing his learning, despite the heavy odds, all depend upon his goals and philosophy of life.
5. Readiness and will power: Learner's readiness and power to learn is a great deciding factor in the results of learning. No power on earth can make a learner learn if he is not ready to learn. Contrarily, if he has a will to learn something then, he will himself find the way for effective learning.

Teacher Related Factors
If the learner stands at one end of (he on-going teaching-learning process us one of the pole then inevitably, it is the teacher who is entrusted to act as the other pole for the desired flow of the leaching-learning activities in the classroom. He is the person who has to play the role of friend, philosopher and guide for initialing, interacting as well as concluding all the activities pertaining lo the classroom journey traveled along with the students of the class. Hence, teacher related factors are bound to play significant role in shaping and directing the teaching-learning process of a classroom or work situation. Lei us here briefly summarize the role of such teacher related factors in the teaching-learning process.
1. Mastery over the subject matter: A teacher should know the art and skill of teaching so that the students are able to realize the stipulated teaching-learning objective in a particular teaching-learning situation. He may know his subject well but for sharing, communicating and interacting various experience related to the learning of the subject, be needs specific teaching skills, art and sciences of his leaching profession. The proficiency and deficiency possessed by a teacher in this regard are quite responsible for turning the teaching-learning process into a big success or a failure.
2. Personality trails and behaviour of the teacher: A teacher as a leader has lo lead his students in the teaching-learning process through the magnetic influence and incredible impression left on the minds of the students on the basis of his personality trails and behaviour. He is a role model for his students. His actions, behaviour pattern and personality trails carry a great meaning lo his students for being imitated and brought into practice. Therefore, much of the task regarding desirable behaviour modification, an essential large) meant for any teaching-learning act. is very much influenced by the types of personality traits and behaviour pattern demonstrated by the teacher in his action and behaviour in the classroom and work situations. Moreover, how he behaves with his students during the various types of activities and interactions carried out in the leaching-learning process also prove a decisive factor in finalizing the teacher learning outcomes.
3. Level of adjustment and menial health of the teacher: How adjusted a teacher feels in his personal and professional life and the slate and level of mental health maintained by the teacher carries much weight in influencing his behaviour and effectiveness needed for the effective control and management of the leaching-learning process. A teacher possessing poor menial health and lack of adjustment in his personal and professional life may prove total failure in the realization of teaching-learning objectives, whereas a teacher possessing good menial health and adjustment may prove an ideal image to his students and boon (o the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process.
4. Type of discipline and interaction maintained by the teacher: A teacher who is a good disciplinarian (democratic and persuasive) and believe in providing due interactive roles to his students in the teaching-learning process brings more positive and belter teaching-learning outcomes in comparison to the teachers who arc poor in terms of maintaining discipline (autocratic or lethargic) and arc in the habit of providing unidirectional flow of communication by discouraging any initiative and interaction from his students.

Content Related Factors
In a teaching-learning process, one thing that is shared most between the learner and the teacher is the contents of the subject matter. Desired instructional objectives and educational aims can be effectively achieved only on the basis of the quality of these contents or learning experiences shared during the process of leaching-learning. Poor contents lead lo poor teaching and inadequate or sometimes no learning while contents rich in the desired learning experiences suited to the nature, interest and ability of the learner always pay rich dividend in terms of the realization of set teaching-learning objectives. In brief the factors related to contents influencing teaching-learning may be broadly divided into three main categories named and discussed as below.
1. Nature of the contents or leaning experiences: Teaching-learning process is influenced by the nature of the contents, subject matter or learning experiences shared in the process. Whether the nature of the content material or learning experience provided in a teaching-learning process is formal or informal, incidental or organized, direct or indirect, proves quite a potent factor in influencing the process and products of teaching-learning.
2. Selection of the contents or learning experiences: Proper attention. lime and energy employed for the desired selection of the contents or learning experiences best suited for the realization of the teaching-learning objectives in a particular teaching-learning situation always proves decisive in influencing the process and products of teaching-learning. Therefore, it is always advisable to select content material or the learning experiences on the basis of the desired principles like principle of child centeredness, principle of activity, criterion of activity, age, grade and experiences of the learners etc.
3. Organization of the channels or learning experiences: Selected contents or learning experiences need better organization for the effective sharing among the learners and teacher. A belter organization will be more convenient and provide strength to the learners and teacher for the better realization of the stipulated teaching-learning objectives. Therefore, the methods like logical v/s psychological, spiral vs concentric, criterion of difficulty level, correlation etc. should he properly employed for the effective organization of the contents or learning experiences.

Process Related Factors
Teaching-learning output can always be better realized in terms of the stipulated leaching-learning objectives if the factors related to the process of leaching-learning are better planned, organized and executed in a proper way. Such process related factors have been explained as under:
1. Methodology adopted for teaching-learning experiences: In teaching-learning, much depends upon the methods, techniques and approaches employed for the leaching and learning of the selected contents and learning experiences. Let us weigh the truth of this statement from various angles.
(a) Linking of the new learning with the past: The quality of the result in teaching-learning depends much on the abilities of the teacher and the learner u> link the present new learning with the past experiences of the learner. Past experience help the learner to assimilate and understand the new learning by providing success as well as cementing force for this purpose.
(b) Correlating the learning in one area to the other: Correlation facilitates the task of teaching-learning as il allows maximum transfer of training or learning from one area to another. Accordingly, one can expect good results in learning if learning experiences arc given in view of seeking correlation—(i) among the different subjects or areas, (ii) within the branches or experiences or experiences of the same area and (iii) with the real life happenings and situations.
(c) Utilization of maximum number of senses: Senses are said to be the gateway of knowledge und consequently the results in teaching-learning arc very much influenced by the nature and type of the utilization of one's senses for the acquisition of learning experiences. A learner who learns through the utilization of his maximum senses like sense of sight, hearing, (ouch, smell, tastes and also tries to learn by doing the things himself always reach at an advantageous point.
(d) Provision of drill work, revision und practice: Review and practice always brings good results in the achievements of student's learning. A learner who makes use of sufficient drill work, practice work, revision and review of his learning can be expected to harvest a good yield in terms of its good retention, reproduction and utilization at the proper time.
(e) Provision of proper feedback and reinforcement: The teaching-learning yields arc much dependent upon the nature and quality of the feedback and reinforcement provided to the learner in his learning task. One must be acquainted with the progress of his learning in terms of his strengths and weaknesses and remedial action, if needed, may be taken at the proper time. The knowledge of the results and progress may work well for providing immediate reinforcement to the learner. In addition, the learning process can be suitably designed if we take due care for the planning of proper reinforcement technique in the shape of approval of the learning response. Nodding of the head, smiling, saying good-bye. etc. bring a magic in terms of learner's interest and achievement.
(f) The selection of the suitable learning methods und leaching: There are sufficient methods and a number of good techniques available for the teaching and learning of different subjects and areas of experiences. The results in leaching-learning are always influenced by the nature and quality of the methods and techniques employed for the teaching and learning of a particular content, subject matter or learning experiences like those given below—
(i) Whether or not methods and techniques are helpful in learning at memory, understanding or reflective level?
(ii) Whether or not these are teacher-dominated, learner-centered or allow useful teacher-pupil interaction?
(iii) Is it possible to proceed on the path of self learning through them?

2. Teaching-learning environment and resources: I lie learner is helped by the available resources and environment available for bringing desirable changes in his behaviour. How effectively will such changes be introduced in his behaviour depend much of the equality and management of these resources. Such things and factors affecting teaching-learning process may he listed as below—
(a) The socio-emotional climate available in the institution in the shape of teacher-pupil relationships, pupil-pupil relationships and school-staff relationships etc.
(b) The availability of appropriate learning material and facilities in terms of teaching-learning aids, textbooks, library and laboratory facilities, project work. etc.
(c) The proper conducive environment and learning situation, like those given below—
(i)    Proper seating arrangement
(ii)   Calm and peaceful environment
(iii)  Management and control of the factors leading to distraction
(iv) Cooperative and competitive group situations
(v) Congenial learning environment at home
(vi) Provision of proper change, rest and recreation
(vii) Provision of opportunity for creativity and self-expression
In this way the process and products of teaching-learning are said to be influenced by the personal factors associated with the learner and teachers and the external factors (like type of content material and their proper delivery to the learner) lying within the teaching-learning environment.

Current cognitive theories of learning point to the important role students' thought processes play in learning.  Students need to be mentally active processors of information if learning is to occur.  In these formulations, several criteria must be met if learning is to occur.  First, students must attend to information to be learned.  Second, students must create an understanding of the material by creating or identifying relationships amongst the to-be-learned ideas.  Third, students need to relate new ideas to prior knowledge.  Fourth, students need to understand that learning requires mental effort - good learners are strategic and poor learners are not, and that strategy use is the means by which learning occurs.

 When students attend to information, try to see how new ideas relate to each other, or try to relate new information to prior knowledge they are engaged in strategy use.  A strategy is a mental event carried out by the learner to achieve some desired goal (such as remembering some fact).