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Sunday, December 26, 2010


By the end of the second year, the child’s perceptual abilities have developed considerably. In many respects, they are now on a par with those of an adult. But there is still a long way to go in terms of motor skills and coordination, and substantial progress will take place over the next few years. By the age of two, many children have begun to walk unaided and can manipulate objects independently, but their gait is unsteady and their manual dexterity is limited. Over the next couple of years, they gain competence in these respects, becoming more certain of their control over their bodies. A three-year-old is likely to be quite mobile (e.g. able to run) but may find it difficult to respond to a need to change direction or stop – leading to mishaps with inconveniently placed furniture or walls – and may have difficulties with balance (Grasso et al., 1998). A four-year-old is more agile and beginning to develop skills such as throwing and catching, jumping and hopping. And a five-year-old is quite competent i n basic movements. Motor development during these years reflects an interaction between biological maturation, experience and cognition (Thelen, 2000).

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