Custom Search

Friday, January 9, 2015

Cognitive behaviour modification and management

Cognitive behaviour modification and management
(Behavioural approaches to Teaching and Management)

Mastery learning: Teaching approach in which students must learn one unit and pass a test at a specified level before moving to the next unit.
Good behavior game:  Arrangement where a class is divided into teams and each team receives demerit points for breaking agreed-upon rules of good behavior.
Croup consequences: Reward or punishments given to a class as a whole for adhering lo or violating rules of conduct.
Token reinforcement system: System in which tokens earned for academic work and positive classroom behavior can be exchanged for some desired reward.
Contingency contract: A contract between the teacher and a student specifying what the student must do to earn a particular reward or privilege.

A recent application of behavioural views of learning emphasizes self-management – helping students gain control of their own learning.
Use of behavioural learning principles to change your own behavior. If one goal of education is to produce people who are capable of educating them-selves, then students must learn to manage their own lives, set their own goals, and provide their own reinforcement. In adult life, rewards are sometimes vague and goals often take a long time to reach. Think about how many small steps are required to complete an education and find your first job. Life is filled with tasks that call for this sort of self-management (Kanfer & Gaclick. 1986).
Students may be involved in any or all of the steps in implementing a basic be­havior change program. They may help set goals, observe their own work, keep records of it, and evaluate their own performance. Finally, they can select and deliver reinforcement. Such involvement can help students master all the steps so they can perform these tasks in the future (Kaplan. 1991).
Goal Setting. It appears that the goal-setting phase is very important in self-management (Pintrich & Schunk, 2002; Reeve, 1996). In fact, some research suggests that setting specific goals and making them public maybe the critical elements of self-management programs.
Monitoring and Evaluating Progress. Students may also participate in the monitoring and evaluation phases of a behavior change program. Some examples of behaviors that are appropriate for self-monitoring are the number of assignments completed, time spent practicing a skill, number of books read, number of problems correct, and time taken to run a mile. Tasks that must be accomplished without teacher supervision, such as homework or private study, are also good candidates for self-monitoring. Students keep a chart, diary, or checklist recording the frequency or duration of the behaviors in question.
A progress record card can help older students break down assignments into small steps, determine the best sequence for completing the steps, and keep track of daily progress by setting goals for each day. Here is a checklist, taken from Belfiore, & Hornyak1998) to help students manage their homework:
1. Did 1 turn in yesterday’s homework?
2- Did I write all homework assignments in my notebook?
3. Is all the homework in the homework folder?
4. Art all my materials to complete my homework with me?
5. Begin Homework
6. Are all homework papers completed?
7. Did someone check homework to make sure it was completed!
8. After checking, did I put all homework back in fouler*
9. Did I give this paper to teacher? {p. 190),
Self-evaluation is somewhat more difficult than simple self-recording because it involves making a judgment about quality. Students can evaluate their behavior with reasonable accuracy, especially if they learn standards for judging a good performance or product.

Self-Reinforcement. Providing yourself with positive consequences, contingent on accomplishing a particular behavior. The last step in self-management is self-reinforcement. There is some disagreement, however, as to whether this step is actually necessary. Some psychologists believe that setting goals and monitoring progress alone are suf­ficient and that self-reinforcement adds nothing lo the effects (Hayes et al.. 1985). Others believe that rewarding yourself for a job well done can lead lo higher levels of performance than simply setting goals and keeping track of progress (Bandura. 1986). If you are willing to be tough and really deny yourself something you want until your goals are reached, then perhaps the promise of the reward can provide extra incentive for work.

Cognitive Behavior Modification and Self-Instruction
Self-management generally means getting students involved in the basic steps of a be­havior change program. Cognitive behavior modification adds an emphasis on thinking and self-talk. They talk to themselves, often repeating the words of a parent or teacher. In cognitive behavior modification, students are taught directly how to use self-instruction. Meichenbaum (1977) outlined the steps:
1. An adult model performs a task while talking to him- or herself out loud (cog­nitive modeling).
2. The child performs the same task under the direction of the model's instructions (overt, external guidance).
3. The child performs the task while instructing him- or herself aloud (overt, self-guidance).
4. The child whispers the instructions to him- or herself as he/she goes through the task (faded.overt self-guidance).
5. The child performs the task while guiding his/her performance via private speech (covert self-instruct ion), (p, 32)

Brenda Manning and Beverly Payne(1996) list four skills that can increase student learning: listening, planning, working, and checking. 

No comments: